Current and Upcoming

Francis Alÿs
Sven Augustijnen
Pierre Bismuth
stanley brouwn
Manon de Boer
Rineke Dijkstra
Mario Garcia Torres
Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster
Joachim Koester
David Lamelas
Sharon Lockhart
Tino Sehgal
Philippe Thomas
Tris Vonna-Michell
Ian Wilson





Answer is never the same
by Raimundas Malasauskas, 2004

VILNIUS, Date unknown - People sometimes get irritated if you ask them the same

question again, especially if it happens in the same conversation. Yet sometimes they

provide different answers immediately or let’s say two minutes after the first try (think of

the Oracle in the Matrix movie or Bill Clinton in his trial). However when there are 40

years in between of two identically asked questions there’s a big chance to get the

same answer. This does not a priori mean that nothing has changed or things

remained the same. The same answer could mirror a totally different fold of an arrival

than the previous attempt, and to illuminate this trajectory is an intellectual ride through

a number of possibilities that otherwise might remain mutually exclusive. Which is why

an answer could be considered as a typical media-type of event, while the route

towards it is a terrain where things are happening always, but occasionally (and live).

The fact that one day you might be studying Hegel of course is not as interesting as

the path that brought you there: maybe it happened via Heidegger or perhaps via

Spinoza (like you may land to 70’s Disco via House Music or…maybe to Spinoza via

Disco), but let’s face the fact that the ultimate choices and slips happened before the

arrival. Therefore each new entry-point and route generate a new destination and a

new arrival-point. So the answer is never the same even if it is the same sentence.


For a publication of Don’t Expect Anything, a project recently curated by Luca Cerizza

at Galleria Massimo Minini, I was browsing a number of old interviews (from 60s and

70s) with Robert Barry, Ian Wilson, Sol Lewitt and Lawrence Weiner as well as more

recent conversations of Jonathan Monk, Hans Ulrich Obrist, Carsten Höller and Tino

Sehgal, trying to find questions that would be interesting to ask again. Together with

some newly fabricated inquiries it resulted in a series of conversations with Barry,

Sehgal and Wilson. Later on the 12 questions have reached Mario Garcia Torres,

whose work addresses not only the first volume of Conceptual artists like Barry and

Weiner, but also the later explorations of Jonathan Monk or Francis Alys. So basically

this interview took off from the idea to construct different entry-points to the sources of

inspiration as well as playing with the genre of interview. Especially when an identical

principle of asking already used questions had been exploited in more colorful

publications like Face or Another Magazine where Kylie Minogue and Gwyneth Paltrow

did a similar thing to what Robert Barry, Douglas Huebler, Joseph Kosuth and

Lawrence Weiner did in 1989 answering same 20 years old questions by critic Arthur

R. Rose1. This does not mean that Conceptual Art was earlier than Kylie and

Gwyneth. Yet the issue of originating is of course constantly recurring, especially in the

discourse of Conceptual art which “has been marked by a fierce, absolutely fierce

series of attempts by many different artists to claim primacy and position”2. By the way,

this phenomenon is very well pointed out in Untitled by Argentinian conceptualist

Eduardo Costa which is “A piece that is essentially the same as a piece made by any

of the first conceptual artists, dated two years earlier than the original and signed by

somebody else. 1970.” In this respect new entry-points are intended to create warps in

time and promote connectivity instead of competitive dialectics of history. I hope to

hear back from Kylie and Gwyneth one day too.


1 Robert C. Morgan, Art into Ideas. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2 – Charles

Green in interview with Geert Lovink at www.nettime.net


Mario Garcia Torres


Question 1: Have you read Jack Burnham’s book Beyond Modern Sculpture? He

makes the argument that we are changing from an object-oriented world to a system’s

oriented world, and that art is involved in doing it right now.


I guess Burnham referred to post-representational and or post-object oriented

practices to which I will then totally agree, but I would also say that we are now trying

to counteract the overwhelming systems that dictate our daily activities so to restore

some sort of chance related space for framing art. In other words, I think our artistic

practices function as getaways of the modern project that seems in a way still

prevailing a lot of thinking nowadays. Since we are overconscious of the systems we

live imbedded in, art can still work as a catalyst for “mystic” experiences. It is

interesting enough to realize that Sol Lewitt´s sentence “Conceptual artist are mystics

rather than rationalists” seems to be as lively as ever.


Source: Patricia Norvell to Sol LeWitt in Recording Conceptual Art: early interviews

with Barry, Huebler, Kaltenbach, LeWitt, Morris, Oppenheim, Siegelaub, Smithson,

Weiner. 2001.


Sounds like a long-lasting book. The title is a bit outdated, nevertheless the backlash of

object-based practices makes it relevant today. The idea about “system’s oriented

world” confirms that we are probably on the same course of Modernity like we were 40

years ago, only the entry point has changed. Don’t forget: how many systems? The

book was written when there were at least two of them: Communism and Capitalism.

There could be even more today: McDonalds, Burger King, Pizza Hut, etc.


Question 2: I wonder if we can place any significance on the idea of real time, not only

in terms of a temporal work, but as a subject. We now have different notions of time

than we used to… it’s not limitless anymore. What are other notions of time that are

particularly important to you?


Jack Burnham also referred to “real time art works” as simulated ecosystems where

immediate interaction and exchange of information took place; that notion was relevant

for that particular time. I don’t think real time in technology and art is that relevant today

since we seem to have come to terms with it. What I think is more interesting is the

paradox that the idea of “real time” seems to be very “dated”.


Source: Bob Nickas’ interview with Robert Barry, Journal of Contemporary Art, Vol. 5.,

No 1 Spring 1992., page 14.


The second part of the question is an addition to the original one. Time is a key

category for all three of artists (in the show at Massimo Minini’s - JM): Robert Barry

claims that “time is creativity” (see interview with Bob Nickas), Tino Sehgal talks about

his interest “in proposing different notions of history, presence, eternity” (see Hans

Ulrich Obrist interview with Tino Sehgal) and Ian Wilson acknowledges that time was

the subject of his very first discussions (see the source of Question 3.)


Question 3. Is the notion of truth important in any respect in your work?

I think truth is not important to art. Art functions in a cognitive arena where the

message is read in an intuitive-reasoning act, which is not necessarily based on actual



Source: Interview Ian Wilson by Oscar van den Boogaard, the newspaper of Galerie

Jan Mot, issue 32, May-June 2002.


Ian Wilson talks about truth in the interview with Oscar van den Boogard. I think it’s

more relevant to talk about truth than to produce it, because it’s a dramatic business.


Question 4. How are you deciding what is art? Or when is art?


There is no when for art. Art is an endless negotiation, in social and personal terms. In

my own quest, each breakthrough becomes art.


Source: Patricia Norvell to Lawrence Weiner in Recording Conceptual Art: early

interviews with Barry, Huebler, Kaltenbach, LeWitt, Morris, Oppenheim, Siegelaub,

Smithson, Weiner. 2001.


The second part of the question functions as a reference to Nelson Goodman who in

his seminal Languages of Art book re-formulated essentialist question “what is art?”

into relativist “when is art?” A similar attitude is expressed by Sol LeWitt who talks

about art “as verb.”


Question 5. Do you have an idea where does deleted or erased information disappear

in general?


I don’t precisely know where the information in De Kooning’s drawing or in the

Baldessari’s paintings went, but there is neither a reason to ask ourselves about that.

The void they left is more interesting than the information they had. There is a saying

that explains there is a planet where all the lost sox are. I find this an interesting way of

explaining these kind of factual phenomena.


Source: Raimundas Malasauskas interview about weblogging with Catherine Fake,

Jouke Klereebeezem and Paul Perry in the second edition (2003) of the online version

of NU magazine: www.nu-e.nu.


Perhaps this question has to do with info-ecology related issues that are common to all

three artists (Barry, Sehgal, Wilson - JM) as well. Self-consuming or self-sustaining

instead of self-replicating?


Question 6. Have you ever done work under a different name? Can you imagine doing

a work of another artist? Do you sometimes imagine work of another artist that hasn’t

been ever made?


I have never made a work under a different name, although as reposition to art history,

I have completed some works by other artists. An example is a video that David

Lamelas and Marcel Broodthaers conceived in the late sixties but never got to do.

Being in Berlin where it was supposed to be taped, I made the piece along fellow artist

Stefan Bruggeman. It ´s called Untitled (Historical reposition) and it’s a very simple

video where the two protagonists walk towards the camera. I happen to talk to Lamelas

in NY early that year and he told me they made sketches for the piece which was

supposed to be done when he came back to Europe after going to America. When

back in Berlin, Broodthaers was already in bed and they could never realize it. Most of

the time I try to evade creative decisions and deposit them into prevailing structures or

persons so, I guess it could be interesting for me as an exercise to ask people to think

in a work of mine and consider the possibility of making it happen.


Source: Unidentified.


The man who taught Blake painting in his dream is a drawing by William Blake. When I

saw it first time last year I couldn‘t understand whether this was a portrait of a man who

was using his dreams to teach William Blake the way of painting, or whether it was

Blake who was taught how to paint in his dreams. “Can you teach me something in

your dreams?” I would like to ask someone one day.

“There are many artists I respect. I must be influenced by all of them. I must be

influenced by Picasso also although I’ve never really looked at his work,” claims Tino

Seghal (see Hans Ulrich Obrist’s interview with Tino Sehgal.)


Question 7. Can your pieces be redone in another situation, somewhere else, by

someone else, actually?


Yes. I think in the works as operational structures, and in that sense they are just

platforms to be activated in any time and space. I guess that is also my way of

interacting with other art agents as curators, art dealers or collectors. I am right now

working in some works that are only titles to be filled out with content by other agents

as: A photograph taken by its owner before having acquired the piece or A sculpture

that was misplaced by a curator.


Source: Patricia Norvell’s interview with Robert Barry in Recording Conceptual Art:

early interviews with Barry, Huebler, Kaltenbach, LeWitt, Morris, Oppenheim,

Siegelaub, Smithson, Weiner. 2001.


Sort of a take on Question 7, only it addresses the issue of repeatability instead of

recombination, multiple identity and transpersonal commons. Actually the question

comes from the statement of Robert Barry about his work in 1969.


Question 8. I was wondering if you use the Internet? Do you imagine a dissemination

of your work via Internet? Is it appropriate to your work?


I use the Internet a lot. I would even think of oral communication as a technology and a

dissemination tool. When the work is just the beginning of a speculation (some sort of

private rumor) it doesn’t matter what medium carries it. In that sense, if we think the

Internet now possess some sort of credibility -although we all know that its not

necessarily true all the time-, it has become a great broadcasting vehicle, just as the

museum is.


Source: Hans Ulrich Obrist to Sol LeWitt and Jonathan Monk in Jonathan Monk

catalogue, Lisson Gallery & Galerie Yvon Lambert, 2003.


“I am not into it at all” (Sol LeWitt to Hans Ulrich Obrist)


Question 9. Isn’t non-productivity one of the most radical and violent means to

counteract dominant structures? Do you use the notion of a product in your artistic



You are right about the violence in non-productivity, but I would also say that nonproductivity

is almost an impossible concept in practical terms. I think that nonproductivity

will most of the time lead you to something. (Maybe I am just thinking on

Francis Alys’ two video works, Paradox of Practice… (Sometimes Making Something

Leads to Nothing and Sometimes Making Nothing Leads to Something). I think nonproductivity

should be understood as a creative tool and not only as a reference

framework or an activist practice. I understand that a product could be anything that is

the consequence of an action (even if it is a minimal one) without needing to be an

object, contrary to the way the capitalistic system understands it.


Source: Carsten Höller in a discussion with Daniel Birnbaum in Production, Kiasma,

Helsinki, 2000.


The second part of the question is something more general. The notion of a product is

something that often puts people off, but since we are in a multi-system reality (see

notes for question 1, it is inevitable to use it.


Question 10. Is oral communication just language?


Oral communication is a lot more than language; It is one of the best mediums for the

dissemination of ideas. It is in the missing and adding details of daily conversation that

the triggers of aesthetic speculations relay. It has been said that a large part of the

success of Conceptual Art is due to the efficient spread of its body of ideas through

academies and arts schools.


Source: Robert Barry to Ian Wilson in Lucy Lippard, Six Years: The Dematerialization

of the art object from 1966 to 1972.


Question 11. Is the “unknown” an important element in your other work also?


It is definitely an important element. Although I have to say that is not “the beyond” (if

something like that ever existed) that interests me, but that space where non-likely

facts remain obscure but still believable. It is the presupposition of this notion that most

of the time activates my works.


Source: Interview with Robert Barry in the catalogue of Prospect ’69. Kunsthalle,

Düseldorf, September 30 – October 12, 1969. Via Lucy Lippard, Six Years: The

Dematerialization of the art object from 1966 to 1972) (see also page x for the

complete version of this Interview Piece by Robert Barry – JM)


Question 12. Can you have a discussion with an Invisible Man?


I guess I could. I just haven’t seen any recently.


Source: unidentified. Perhaps this has to do with immaterial and untraceable character

(or….?) of some of the work of Tino Sehgal, Robert Barry and Ian Wilson.



Source: Gallery Newspaper 43: August 2004